Tuesday, December 15, 2015

My girls

The girls came out of their run to help me with digging some leaf litter into the soil. They enjoy their work!
 The bantam Sumatras found some greenery to work over.
 Ms. Wyandotte had to get into a planter. She's very bossy.
 Lady Fanny is a Speckled Sussex. She is a senior hen with excellent mothering abilities.
 Pixie is my Peruvian basket hen. She's about the same size as the Sumatras, but her feathers have a purple sheen, while their glisten iridescent green.
 This sweet Ancona is so lovely. Her comb reflects her condition. While she was going through her molt, it was small and shriveled. Now that she is recovering and getting ready to lay again, it is a nice red color and getting bigger. When her comb first started growing, my husband was certain she must be a rooster. he had never seen such a big comb on a hen.
 Blondie, my rosecomb Dorking, the princess of our flock. My personal favorite, but don't tell the other girls.
A Cuckoo Marans. I look forward to her dark brown eggs again soon. Maybe next week.

Friday, December 4, 2015

ABA and APA Yearbooks

ABA president Matt Lhamon remarked the other day that "The ABA Yearbook alone is worth the price of membership." He captured in a few words how encyclopedic and useful these volumes are.

Both the APA and the ABA publish Yearbooks every year. I'm happy that the APA includes two of my articles in the 2015 Yearbook.

These Yearbooks are exceptional, compact treasures of information. In an Information Age of the Internet, they are a reminder that some books can't be replaced. Rather than searching electronically for information, just open one of these books and flip through the pages.

The ABA Yearbook is filled with photos that can acquaint the beginner with breeds, ranging from the Silver Laced Wyandotte and Silkie on the cover to Old English of many colors, Sebrights and Mille Fleur bantams.Experienced breeders can find other contacts, breed clubs can find advocates for their breeds, poultry clubs can find lic4ensed judges. Master breeders are listed. If you want to connect with anything bantam, this is your resource. Well worth the $25 price of a membership, indeed!

Similarly for the APA Yearbook. Judges are listed, along with photos of many of them. Lots of color photos in the advertisements. The ads in these publications have valuable information not available many other places. And, of course, the articles. Jim Sallee judged  the World Gamefowl Expo in the Philippines, and he and Bonnie went to the Hannover, Germany Poultry Show. They tells those stories in the Yearbook's pages.

Big names in the poultry world contribute to its pages: Frank Reese on What the 'Old Experts' Knew, Mark Fields on Interpreting the Dominique Standard in 2015, Lou Horton on his 20-Year Breeding Program for Buff Wyandotte Bantams, John C. Metzgar on Frizzled Fowls. A report on the 2014 Canadian National, from north of the border.

I was especially pleased to write about Watt Global Media's collection of original oil portraits, some of which hang in their corporate headquarters lobby.
These books contain answers to many of the questions you will have in the coming year. Have both at hand.

Thursday, December 3, 2015

Eggs from pastured hens

 The NY Times posted this encouraging story about a farm raising chickens on pasture for eggs. There are a few more details I'd like to know: What kind of chickens are they raising, and where they get them from; how long do they keep the hens; what do they do with hens who are past laying.

Whatever the answers are to those questions, this farm and the news story about it represent a huge change for the better. Some day, all eggs people eat will come from hens who are living good lives.

Putting the Chicken Before the Egg

CRESCENT CITY, Calif. — A decade ago, a couple running a dairy business in Northern California visited a Mennonite farm where the owner had used a flock of laying hens to teach his children business principles and instill values like responsibility and care for nature.
They returned home and bought 150 hens for their boys, Christian and Joseph. “My parents told us, you and Joseph are in charge of keeping these 150 birds alive,” recalled Christian Alexandre, who now heads the family’s egg business.
What started as a parental effort to instill solid values has become the mainstay of Alexandre Family EcoDairy Farms. Within five years, Christian and Joseph were tending 1,500 hens and had a deal in place to supply eggs to Whole Foods stores in Northern California. Christian remembers Walter Robb, co-chief
The rusty red chickens foraging in the fields outnumber the cows 10 to 1 — and the roughly five million eggs they will produce this year command prices that make organic milk look cheap. “The egg business has kept the dairy going for several years,” Blake Alexandre, Christian’s father, said.

Read the rest of the story here. 

Thursday, October 22, 2015

How to Safely Dress Up Your Backyard Chickens for the Holidays

This delightful story was posted on Backyard Poultry in 2014. it's okay to have fun with your chickens.

Dress and photo by Holly Olejnik.
Olivia Dougherty, who lives in Delaware, Maryland, created her chicken clothes for a contest, sponsored by Cooptastic, one of the nation’s premier educational conferences dedicated to small and backyard poultry flock. And each conference holds a chicken costume contest.
“It’s along the lines of the lamb- and sheep-dressing contests frequently held at 4-H shows,” said Brigid McCrea, PhD, associate professor at Delaware State University and extension poultry specialist who organizes and helps judge the conference’s contest.
“Audience loves it to pieces,” McCrea continued. “Not only for the creativity but also for the conversation. It provides an opportunity for people to converse with one another and to talk to other poultry people.”
Leona Palumbo’s chicken, Kevin, helps out in the kitchen.
For her entry in the contest, Dougherty designed a “Superman” cape, complete with an egg logo. “I made it for my favorite chicken who is our biggest, white and black, ‘Supersize’ chicken.” Although her family no longer has chickens, if she were to design future chicken clothes for costumes, Dougherty thinks it would also have a superhero theme, along the lines of a Chicken Spiderman.
Dougherty does have goats and a pig and she admits to dressing them with collars, necklaces and little blankets. She has also dressed up her dog up as a lady bug and has put tiny shirts on her cat.
“It’s fun,” she says of the experience.


A holiday chicken. Photo by Dead End Acres.
For some, the urge to put their backyard poultry in chicken clothes simply comes from a need. Kelly Nichols of Bloomville, New York, wanted to do a Facebook Christmas card, and decided what better subjects to use than a kid and her chicken? Nichols also works with a few of her hens to participate in agility challenges as well as hen therapy.
“It has been difficult,” said Nichols of the designing aspect. “I’ve tried a few dog outfits, but they just don’t fit right. I make our own chicken clothes. We’re pretty lucky; we have a couple different hens that will be patient enough to let me pattern on them.”
Kevin with Santa. Photo by Leona Palumbo.

Raise Awareness 

Some people, like Jennifer Pike, of Florida, became inspired to dress their flock in chicken clothes on a whim. “I was shopping with my mom at a store and came across a cute teddy bear outfit. We started joking about how people dress up dogs, and I said I was going to get it to put on my house chicken for a cute picture … and that started it all.”
Pike, who said she suffers from depression, also sees posting her chickens in their chicken clothes on Facebook as a way of bringing enjoyment to others, and has helped her connect with others who also use chickens as a means of coping.
“I liked posting funny pics of my chickens,” Pike said, “as raising chickens can be a heartbreaking hobby and many people who I chat with on forums. … The cute pictures bring smiles to people and also get non-chicken people interested in how chickens can be neat pets.”
Throughout the years, Sophie’s chicken clothes for her favorite pet Silkie chicken have included: a pirate costume, a police officer, a cheerleader, a bride, a Santa suit and a rain jacket. Pike has also had her chickens wear barrettes in topknots in shapes of bows or flowers along with a chicken diaper when they went to stores.
Everywhere Pike takes a dressed-up chicken, people can’t help but stop and ask questions. “Kids seemed very interested as well as parents. They never knew how diverse the looks of chickens could be or how sweet. Sophie traveled with me in my truck everywhere. She often rode in my lap, looking out the window glass or in a towel sitting in my seat console.”
Once, Sophie said, a lady at a drive-through got so scared of the chicken — “a little fluffy chicken with a hair barrett and a flowered diaper” — that another lady had to hand her the food.
“Eventually she started asking questions and became less afraid,” Sophie said.

Bring Joy 

Holly Olejnik from Huntington Mills, Pennsylvania, first started dressing up her chicken, Cheep Cheep, four years ago for a Halloween contest on Facebook. “Everyone loved her and went nuts on how well she took to being photographed.”
That was only the beginning. Cheep Cheep’s chicken clothes are fairly small now with about 30 dresses.
Dress and photo by Holly Olejnik.
“We donate all that she has worn to family and friends that have little ones on the way,” Olejnik says of Cheep Cheep’s dresses. “All the chicken clothes that she wears are bought from thrift stores or yard sales. We shop in the children’s department or look for Halloween costumes that look fun. My grandmother Carolyn Gensel loves to go hunting for my next dress to post to Facebook. She carries a photo of me and shows off her grand-chicken to anyone wondering who the pretty dress is for.”
Cheep Cheep has quite the Facebook following from around the world. In fact, Olejnik says, “A lot of her friends, if they are in the area on vacation, ask if they can come meet her in person because she has brought so much joy and smiles into their life.”
If you’re interested, Cheep Cheep’s Facebook fan page is “Cheep Cheep Olejnik,” and her regular profile page is “CeeCee Olejnik.”

Functional Attire 

Sometimes, chickens need functional accessories like aprons (for protection against a rooster’s nails) and diapers (for, well, you know). Julie Baker, owner of Pampered Poultry (pamperyourpoultry.com) decided that if a bird has to wear functional chicken clothes, then it might as well look pretty. She has made designer chicken clothes, including floral chicken diapers and has added ruffles to chicken aprons to make them look more like attractive summer dresses.
Designer chicken attire by Julie Baker. Photo by Julie Baker.

Plain Old-Fashioned Fun

And then there is Kevin, the chicken that just showed up in Leona Palumbo’s driveway one day.
“I never had chickens nor did I know much about them,” Leona said. “My husband found her in a tree next to our driveway and brought her in to me as a joke, and she fell instantly asleep on my lap and it was love at first sight from there. We put flyers up about her around the neighborhood, but never heard from anyone. It quickly became apparent that potty issues needed to be dealt with, so I did a quick search online on a lark for ‘chicken diapers,’ and lo and behold, several designs popped up. I picked out the one I thought would work and ordered it. It works great and she fit in at home inside with all of our other pets just fine.”
Then one day, she bought Kevin a Christmas sweater.
“To be perfectly honest, I don’t know why the heck I bought it and put it on her … I really don’t. I just did and it she was so calm and easy going about it that it just became a thing we did and took pictures of. … We try to do holidays and family events and just fun things. I keep her page completely free of hot-button topics and I am amused and pleased at the incredibly varied following she has acquired in a very short time.”
Most people think it is fun, says Palumbo, but she has gotten some negative comments from animal activist types who think it is mean.
“But they just don’t know how loved and spoiled Kevin is. We never do anything that makes her uncomfortable and I swear, she even knows what’s going on as she sits so calmly, and once the picture is taken, she goes off again on her little way. Some other people have remarked that they can’t believe I let a chicken on my counters and furniture. Well, ‘That’s why there is soap and water in the world,’ I usually remark. Kevin is my pet, no different than my cats, dogs or other animals, and she is just as loved and welcome anywhere in my home.”
Kevin’s photos can be found on her Facebook page at “Kevin-The-Chicken.”
Wendy lives in New Hampshire. Reach her at wendy@simplethrift.com, follow her on Twitter @WendyEN Thomas, and find her Facebook page at Wendy.Thomas.
Kevin, on her motorcycle. Photo by Leona Palumbo.

Safety Tips

Whether it be for a competition, holiday, or just for pleasure, many people enjoy putting clothing and accessories on their chickens in order to dress them up. If you are going to costume your chickens, advises Brigid McCrea, PhD, associate professor at Delaware State University and extension poultry specialist, for the health and safety of your birds keep the following clothing guidelines in mind:
• Watch the weight of the costume, as chickens will get flustered if an outfit weighs them down.
• Along with fabric weight, be careful to not use fabrics that will overheat the bird. Polar fleece is a lightweight material but if worn for a long period, it may make your chicken too warm.
• An interesting fact about chickens is that they are naturally attracted to the color red and will peck at it; be careful of where red is used in the bird’s costume.
• Make sure that the chicken can move her wings and that the outfits do not in any way restrict her wing movement.
• If you are putting something around the chicken’s neck (necklace, bandana), make sure that it is lightweight and does not hang down so low that the chicken could potentially trip over it.
• Try not to use hats or head coverings. Chickens are prey animals, meaning they are constantly on the lookout for predators who may be after them. A hat restricts vision and won’t be tolerated very long by any chicken. Consider this the first step toward learning how to protect chickens from hawks and other predators.
• Be careful of beads and hanging decorations that the chicken may be tempted to try to eat them. Likewise, inspect the construction of the outfit to make sure that it does not have loose, dangly threads or that it might fall apart while the chicken is wearing it.
• Allow for waste to happen (because you know that with chickens it eventually will); either leave the back area open in a costume or prepare the chicken to wear a diaper. Composting chicken manure is an excellent way to add nutrients to your garden.
• Lastly, make sure that the costumes are made from washable fabrics, and for bio-security reasons, wash them after each wearing in order to avoid possible contamination among chickens.
Published in 2014.

Saturday, September 5, 2015

Star Quality

Chip, so named after she was corralled by California Highway Patrolmen, got Bay Area attention when she wandered on to the Bay Bridge. One of many stories is quoted below.

Reporter David DeBolt and the shelter workers may need some help understanding the chicken-and-egg problem. Unless Chip has been consorting with a rooster, they won't have to worry about the egg hatching. Broody hens are unlikely to set on a single egg, anyway.

It's always good to see a chicken story with a happy ending in the news!

OAKLAND -- Three people are missing a chicken, and you know how that can be. Especially when they each claim ownership of the same chicken.
How do you tell one chicken from another? The Oakland Animal Shelter faced the same question Thursday, when three calls came in about a certain chicken of recent local fame: The one that strutted between cars at the Bay Bridge Toll Plaza during the Wednesday morning commute, then lit up newscasts and social media.
"She's a very popular chicken," said animal services director Rebecca Katz by phone as dogs barked in the background. "We've told them to come down with proof."
The California Highway Patrol, which rescued the chicken, has not determined its whereabouts before the bridge sightings began 6:30 a.m. Wednesday. And she isn't talking.

Chickens disrupted the morning Bay Bridge commute and caused a brief social media frenzy on Wednesday, Sept. 2. (Photo courtesy Jeff Chu / Twitter)
Chickens disrupted the morning Bay Bridge commute and caused a brief social media frenzy on Wednesday, Sept. 2. (Photo courtesy Jeff Chu / Twitter) 
The best proof available in this case -- the fowl has no tags and unlike many felines and canines is not microchipped -- appears to be photo evidence to match its coloring and size.
"They'd have to show us pictures to identify it being theirs," Katz said. "We'll go from there."
The three callers had not produced photographs as of Thursday evening. Two rescue groups also want to care for Chip, and there's likely other space available in Oakland's urban farming community.
The CHP first brought the chicken to a shelter in Berkeley before it was handed over to the Oakland shelter.For now, shelter workers have taken to calling the chicken "Chip," a nod to the CHP for its rescue. At the shelter, Chip has access to a chicken run and her neighbors include roosters brought to the shelter because it is illegal to keep them within Oakland limits, Katz said.

On Thursday, Chip laid an egg, Katz said, but they'll probably swap in a substitute egg for her to sit on.
"We don't want anymore chickens," Katz said.

David DeBolt covers breaking news. Contact him at 510-208-6453. Follow him at Twitter.com/daviddebolt.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Crested chickens

Several chicken breeds are crested, with a fluffy fountain of feathers tumbling from a knob on top of their heads. That crest has attracted plenty of attention over the years, sometimes called a top-knot or a top hat. Recognized crested breeds include Polish, Crevecoeur, Houdan and Sultan. Most likely it’s the small Polish, the most popular. Crevecoeurs are larger, always all black and show a distinctive horned comb with two prongs. Houdans are usually mottled black and white. Observe their legs. Houdans have a fifth toe, a spur on the back of the leg. Unrecognized breeds include the hefty Sulmtaler. Sulmtaler roosters have a small tuft at the back of the serrated comb, but hens have a nice crest and their combs meander in an S shape on their heads, the front falling to one side and the back to the other.
Golden Laced Polish tooster
Brabanters and Appenzeller Spitzhaubens have pointy crests behind that V comb. 

Although their appearance invites humor, crested chickens have a long and distinguished history, and are honored for their productive usefulness as well. Ulisse Aldrovandi included woodcuts of crested chickens in the first book published on chickens in 1600.

Aldrovandi called these Paduan chickens

That knob isn’t just feathers up there. Crested breeds have a dome of bone on their skulls. The feathers grow out of that. Because of the placement of the crest, the bony skull structure affects the nostrils, so that crested chickens have flattened, cavernous nostrils,

Crests require extra care. Breeders may trim the crest back or hold it back with a rubber band during breeding season, so the birds can see what they are doing. Special waterers can help the bird avoid getting the crest and beard feathers soaked, which can ruin them for a show.

Drawings by J. Batty
The crested breeds have V combs, even if they are concealed beneath the crest feathers. The V or horn comb, required for exhibition in the U.S., is unusual. In England and France, the leaf comb, shaped like butterfly wings, is still recognized. Leaf combs are the result of the V comb crossed with a single comb.

Friday, August 14, 2015

Sign your birds into the Poultry Census!

The Livestock Conservancy is conducting a Poultry Census. The more who participate, the better it will reflect how many and what kinds of birds are out there. The more we know, the better we can all communicate and improve our birds and poultry life in general. 

One of the issues with poultry is that there is no breed registry as there is for other livestock. That's a useful tool poultry breeders and their birds lack. This is a great way to support poultry into the future.
Buff OrpingtonDear Poultry Breeders & Friends,

Make your poultry efforts count!
The Livestock Conservancy (TLC) is conducting a North American poultry census. Funded by Murray McMurray Hatchery, this critically important project will enable us to understand how different poultry breeds are faring in the United States and Canada. The last poultry census was conducted by TLC more than a decade ago, and now with the Federal National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) no longer collecting breed-specific data, this will be the only effort of its kind in America. The census will be a vital source of information for TLC as well as other poultry focused organizations nationwide and internationally. The data gathered will help to aim and extend vital breed conservation work where it is needed the most and will guide efforts well into the 21st century.

The census will be focused on old landrace & large fowl standard bred poultry as recognized in the American Poultry Association’s Standard of Perfection— more specifically, on the breeding stock being maintained. We are specifically asking for information on the number of breeding birds only in order to get an estimate on the size of the actively reproducing gene pool for each breed.

The information you provide for this census will be held in strict confidence unless you indicate that you would like us to share it with others interested in the breed you maintain. Please take a few minutes to complete this census form through the link below. Your participation is highly valued. The final results will be shared on the TLC website and with all of our project partners listed below, without whom this project would not be possible.

The Conservancy thanks you for your stewardship of poultry and your participation in this vital project. Please click on the following link to reach the census.
North American Poultry Census
If you know of others who breed old landrace & large fowl standard bred poultry, please forward this email to them and share the census with any poultry networks you are associated with.

The Livestock Conservancy Staff

Census Partners
MurrayMcMurray TSC APA RBCanada

Wednesday, August 12, 2015

Frost on Chickens

Frost on Chickens is a National Agricultural Library Digital Exhibit, available online. Thank you NAL!
"I kept farm, so to speak for nearly ten years, but less as a farmer than as a fugitive from the world that seemed to me to 'disallow' me. It was all instinctive, but I can see now that I went away to save myself and fix myself before I measured myself against all creation."
Robert Frost

From a letter to the literary editor of the Boston Evening Transcript, March 22, 1915. Quoted in Sheehy, D. G., Richardson, M., & Faggen, R. (eds.) The Letters of Robert Frost: Volume 1, 1886 - 1921 (2014), page 12.

The poet Robert Frost lived and worked as a poultry farmer in Derry, New Hampshire from 1900 to 1909. During that period he published a dozen articles for two trade journals: The Eastern Poultryman and The Farm-Poultry. The National Agricultural Library (NAL) holds copies of these publications and other relevant materials on poultry farming which give context to Frost's articles.

Robert Frost, circa 1910-1920
Robert Frost, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front
circa 1910 - 1920
Library of Congress
Prints & Photographs Division

"Frost on Chickens" is made of nine smaller topical exhibits that relate directly to the subjects contained in Frost's pieces. Each exhibit presents relevant excerpts from Frost's articles, an overview of the topic, and links to full-text, digital NAL and USDA materials. The structure of the site follows the general subjects addressed by Frost's stories. There are nine focused exhibits: Hen Houses, Backyard Chickens, Chicken Feed, Fancy Chickens, Poultry Breeds, Poultry Farming, Egg Production, the Poultry Marketplace, and the Poultry Press. There is also an overview of Robert Frost's time in Derry, New Hampshire in the early 1900s and the Frost Farm.

NAL has created many digital materials relevant to all of these topics. Providing an alternate means of access to these full-text books, articles, and reports is one of the reasons "Frost on Chickens" was created.

"Frost on Chickens" contains records for over 200 selected full-text digital books, reports, and images from the late the 1800s and the 1900s on poultry farming, chicken breeding, and competitive chicken exhibitions, referred to commonly as "The Fancy."

The exhibit also includes records for over 100 selected full-text articles and reports documenting the current work of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service related to poultry including research into poultry health, nutrition, and housing, egg and meat safety and quality, and poultry production efficiency.

Many of the items featured here were published a century ago. Therefore, please do not assume that the content reflects current scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. All views expressed in these items are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the National Agricultural Library.

The Robert Frost Farm in Derry, New Hampshire: Present Day

Saturday, June 27, 2015


While visiting on the East Coast last week, we spent a day at Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson. The site details many references to chickens and other poultry in its archives.

I found the mentions of a broody bantam hen who hatched eight of 13 eggs in 1808 especially interesting. I wonder what kind they were. Could have been Old English Game bantams, or Rosecombs, which were popular in England then.
Old English Fame bantams by Schilling
Rosecomb bantams by Schilling
 Even Sebrights, which were developed about that time, although I'm not sure they had arrived in America then.
Silver and Golden Sebrights, from Lewis Wright
Jefferson had a variety of poultry at Monticello, including chickens, ducks, Guinea fowl, peacocks, pigeons, geese, and turkeys.

Primary Source References

1771. "Thin the trees...Keep in it deer, rabbits, Peacocks, Guinea poultry, pidgeons &c. Let it be an asylum for hares, squirrels, pheasants, partridges...court them to it by laying food for them in proper places..." [1]
1806 November 21. Jefferson to Martha Jefferson Randolph). "Davy arrived last night...He carries also a cage with a pair of Bantams for Ellen." [2]
1806 November 30. (Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge). "By Davy I send you a pair of Bantam fowls; quite young: so that I am in hopes you will now be enabled to raise some. I propose on their subject a question of natural history for your enquiry: that is whether this sis the Gallina Adrianica, or Adria, the Adsatck cock of Aristotle? For this you must examine Buffon etc." [3]
1806 December 12. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "I recieved [sic] the Bantams for which I am very much obliged to you. They seem to be larger, and younger, than the first and I think them handsomer." [4]
1807 February 17. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "As for the Bantam she laid one egg in the cold weathe rand eat it up. I am very much afraid she will do all the others so. If she does she will be as worthless as the others but in spite of that I am very fond of them and think them very handsome. The old ones are quite tame but the new much to the contrary." [5]
1807 June 29. (Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge). "How go on the Bantams? I rely on you for their care, as I do on Anne for the Algerine fowls, and on our arrangements at Monticello for the East Indians. These varieties are pleasant for the table and furnish an agreeable diversification in our domestic occupations." [6]
1807 November 1. (Jefferson to Ann Cary Randolph Bankhead). "I expect a pair of wildgeese of a family which have been natives for several generations, but they will hardley be here in time for Davy. They are entirely domesticated, beautiful have a very musical note, and are much superior to the tame for the table." [7]
1807 November 11. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "ONe of my poor little Bantams is dead and the one which I liked the best although it was the old one. He had got so tame that he could fly up in my lap and eat out of my hand. All the children were sorry at his death." [8]
1808 January 15. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "My Bantams are well but I am afraid I shall never raise any." [9]
1808 March 11. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "I am in a fair way to raise some Bantams as the hen is now setting. She has take up her residence in the cellar. Has laid 13 eggs and I hope will hatch some chickens." [10]
1808 March 14. (Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge). "I am glad to learn you are at length likely to succeed with your Bantams. They are worthy of your attention." [11]
1808 March 18. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "My bantam will hatch in 10 days and I hope I shall raise some of her chickens but they are so delicate. She hatched some last year. We took great care of them but they died." [12]
1808 March 25. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "My bantam will hatch next week." [13]
1808 March 29. (Jefferson to Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge). "I am glad to hear you expect a family of Bantams. Take good care of them. Is it not best to put the hen into a tobacco stick coop in and round which the chickens will always stay." [14]
1808 April 1. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "My bantam has hatched 8. pretty little chickens and I shall follow your advice about her treatment." [15]
1808 July 1. (Ellen Wayles Randolph Coolidge to Jefferson). "My bantams have grown prodigiously and are beautiful." [16]
1808 July 15. (Martha Jefferson Randolph to Jefferson). "I must beg the favor of you...to bring me a little ivory memorandum book...I find my chicken accounts troublesome without some assistance of the kind." [17]
1808 June 4. "Gave for bringing home a pea-hen." [18]


1. Bear, James A. Jr., and Lucia C. Stanton, eds. Jefferson's Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767-1826. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997, 1:249.
2. Betts, Edwin M., and James Bear, Jr., eds. Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1966. Reprinted Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 1986, 290.
3. Ibid, 291.
4. Ibid, 292.
5. Ibid, 296.
6. Ibid, 309.
7. Ibid, 313.
8. Ibid, 314.
9. Ibid, 322.
10. Ibid, 332.
11. Ibid, 334.
12. Ibid, 336.
13. Ibid, 338.
14. Ibid.
15. Ibid, 339.
16. Ibid, 346.
17. Ibid, 349.
18. Bear, James A. Jr., and Lucia C. Stanton, eds. Jefferson's Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767-1826. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997, 2:1246.