Wednesday, January 28, 2009

International Seed Swap Day

This coming Saturday, January 31, 2009, is International Seed Swap Day, The day is designated to encourage people to collect, save and share their own seeds. Saving seeds from local plants supports genetic diversity, both locally and in the bioregion. It contributes to diversity globally. Food security depends on genetic diversity, a value lost in the industrial monocultures of corn, soybeans and wheat.

Seed Savers Exchange in Decorah, Iowa,, describes seed as “a living legacy that can be passed down through generations. When people grow and save seeds, they join an ancient tradition as stewards, nurturing our diverse, fragile, genetic and cultural heritage.”

Crop diversity helps ecosystems recover when disease devastates the dominant crop. The Irish potato famine resulted from focusing potato crops on only two varieties, both of which were vulnerable to the disease that attacked them. Other significant losses due to limited genetics include the European wine industry collapse of the 19th century and the Southern Corn Leaf Blight of the 1970s in the U.S.

Natural ecosystem processes depend on locally adapted plants, animals and microorganisms. Air and water quality, climate, both global and local, disease control, biological pest control, pollination and prevention of erosion can all be improved by biodiversity. People celebrate the wide variety of species and derive spiritual nourishment and artistic inspiration from them. They learn to value their heritage and honor their forebears.

The genetic diversity of wild and domestic crop plants has been enlisted to improve domestic crop plants in the modern era. It's been so successful that a bottom-line mindset has restricted crops to only those that are most productive of commercially valuable end products. That financial incentive has blinded the agricultural industry to the values of diversity.

As noted in my blog entry of December 4, similar pressures are eliminating diversity in poultry, especially chickens. This Sicilian Buttercup rooster, with a shy hen peering over his back, owned and photographed by Barbara Bullock, is a historic breed that has proved its worth over the centuries. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization documents the loss of biodiversity in livestock in its report, The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Rome 2007, From the Executive Summary:

“Overt or hidden governmental subsidies have often promoted the development of large-scale production at the expense of the smallholder systems that utilize local genetic resources… Culling programmes implemented in response to disease outbreaks need to incorporate measures to protect rare breeds; revision of relevant legislation may be necessary… Pastoralists and smallholders are the guardians of much of the world’s livestock biodiversity.”

That’s the significance of conserving historic breeds and the importance of the small flock owner. We can celebrate conserving both plant seeds and animal stock on this day set aside to recognize this work. Find a Community Seed Swap near you, or prepare to organize your own next year. Heather Coburn Flores gives excellent step-by-step directions at Food Not Lawns International.

Keep a flock of Dorkings! Raise Muscovies! Cultivate Pomeranian Geese! Bring a Narragansett Turkey into your yard! Save the world.

Saturday, January 24, 2009

Asiatics -- Langshans

Langshans differ from the other breeds in the Asiatic class in being more noticeably dual purpose. Cochins and Brahmas, although they can be good layers, are thought of as meat breeds because of their large size. This drawing is by Franklane Sewell, published in the Reliable Poultry Journal’s book on The Asiatics (1902).

Historically, their introduction to the U.S. is ascribed to E.A. Samuels, an ornithologist, of Waltham, Massachusetts in 1876. That was four years after Major Croad of Sussex, England introduced them to his home in 1872. Croad Langshans are still specified in the English Standard of Perfection. I.K. Felch, who describes them in The Asiatics, wrote the original Langshan standard and worked to get the breed recognized, in 1883. The breed was controversial at the time.

“…its path was a thorny one for any breed – no breed probably ever had such opposition and probably none ever had a greater triumph in its acceptance. A petition of nearly a thousand names accomplished its admission,” he writes.

Langshans are named for their origin in the five Langshan Hills above Shanghai. The pinnacle hill, Langshan (Wolf in Mandarin) Hill is still a nationally prestigious site, known for the Guangjiao Temple, a Buddhist shrine established in the Tang Dynasty, and the view overlooking the Yangtse River from its southern bank.

They are large birds, at 9 ½ lbs. for a mature cock and 7 ½ lbs. for a mature hen, if not quite so massive as the Cochins and Brahmas. Their white skin is less familiar to American consumers than yellow skin, although it is preferred in Britain. They lay dark brown eggs.

Mr. Felch is particular about the green iridescence of the neck, saddle, tail covert and sickle feathers. The rest of the feathers should be black, without the green sheen, but not rusty.

Legs and feet should be feathered well enough that the outer toe is not visible, but not so much that the bird looks like a Cochin. “This (looking like a Cochin) disgusts every first-class breeder of Langshans,” he wrote.

Langshans have longer necks than the other Asiatic breeds, making them taller, balancing a flowing tail carried high. The present APA Standard describes tail feathers reaching 17 inches long. Today, wings are described as medium size, but Felch says that at that time they had wings large enough to allow them to fly. Any Langshan breeders who can comment on this?

White Langshans developed from natural sports in Black Langshan breeding operations. Rees F. Matson, in The Asiatics, recounts his experience of setting 14 eggs from his best Black Langshans and hatching twelve white chicks! They became the foundation of his flock. White birds may also have been imported. In those early days, the excitement over them was so great that Dorking/Leghorn/Cochin crosses were fraudulently sold as White Langshans. The variety was recognized in the Standard in 1893. At that time, their eggs varied from brown to pink.

A modern Blue variety was recognized in 1987.

Another wonderful breed well worth efforts to continue to keep the breed vibrant and vigorous.

Tuesday, January 20, 2009

Inaugural Luncheon

President Barack Obama started his presidency with a lunch honoring Abraham Lincoln’s favorite foods and traditional poultry. The menu included duck and pheasant, accompanied by wines from wineries with duck-related names. Is this a great year for poultry, or what?

Since 1953, the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies has hosted the Inaugural Luncheon. Previously, starting in the mid-19th century, the outgoing President and the First Lady invited the new First Couple to lunch at the White House. After a leisurely lunch, they would adjourn to a viewing stand outside the White House to watch the parade. In 1897, the luncheon was hosted by the Senate Committee on Arrangements for President McKinley and several guests at the U.S. Capitol. Over the years, the parade got longer, but it had to wait for the honored guests to finish their lunch before the parade could start. Event organizers tried to find ways to speed up the lunch and get the parade started earlier.

In 1897, they tried persuading President McKinley to leave the Capitol after being sworn in and go directly to the viewing stand, where they could have lunch. McKinley and his guests preferred to dine in the Capitol, hosted by the Senate Committee on Arrangements. In 1901, McKinley again lunched at the Capitol, and the parade delays continued. In 1905, Teddy Roosevelt moved the luncheon back to the White House. The organizers hoped that the parade could start earlier. They finally tried to shorten the parade instead.

The inaugural luncheons gained momentum as the years passed. In 1945, President and Mrs. Roosevelt invited over two thousand guests to what would be the last White House inaugural luncheon. In 1949, Secretary of the Senate Leslie Biffle was the host for President Truman and his guests in his Capitol reception room. Another American bird, South Carolina turkey, was the centerpiece of that meal. Smithfield Ham and potato salad were also served, followed by pumpkin pie for dessert.

In 1953, the JCCIC took on the event, again placing poultry again at the center of the menu. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, his wife Mamie, and fifty guests enjoyed creamed chicken, baked ham, and potato puffs in the restored Old Senate Chamber.

Today’s luncheon was held in the Statuary Hall in the Capitol. The menu for the three-course meal started with Seafood Stew: scallops, shrimp and lobster topped with a puff pastry. The first wine served was a 2007 Sauvignon Blanc from Napa Valley’s Duckhorn Vineyards, That poultry-related name actually plays on the name of its founders, Dan and Margaret Duckhorn. The winery comprises three small winery estates, selling wines under the names Paraduxx and Goldeneye as well. The wines feature silhouettes of flying ducks on their labels.

The main course was “A brace (meaning, a pair of like things) of American birds:” Duck breast with sour cherry chutney,, and Herb roasted pheasant with wild rice stuffing, The recipes posted at these links do not specify what kind of duck was used, but more than 90 percent of the duck sold in the U.S. is Peking duck raised in the Midwest. Muscovy duck is available locally and many prefer it. It can be a good choice for small producers. Muscovies are also excellent egg layers. These birds belong to Harvey Ussery of The Modern Homestead,

Pheasant, although not native to the U.S., has become so well established that many assume that it is. Pheasant can also be a successful bird for small producers. This photo belongs to South Dakota Birds and Birding,

The entrée was served with Molasses whipped sweet potatoes and Winter vegetables. Accompanied by Goldeneye, 2005 Pinot Noir from Anderson Valley.

My next book, How to Raise Poultry, includes ducks, pheasants and other domestic poultry. It will be available in April.
Dining on poultry is certainly an auspicious beginning for the Obama administration. We look forward to great things.

Monday, January 19, 2009

Asiatics -- Brahmas

Brahmas, called The Majestic Ones by their advocates in the American Brahma Club,, originally came to New England in the mid-19th century along with Cochins. Documentation for Langshans dates their arrival slightly later.
The Reliable Poultry Journal’s account from the early 20th century takes note of a period of disagreement as to what characteristics should be bred. T.F. McGrew, in The Asiatics, credits Lewis Wright in England, “the King of the Brahma Fancy,” with “saving the Brahma from ruin.” Nevertheless, he concludes his essay by noting that the Boston and New York shows of 1900 placed the same birds in opposite order. “This shows the importance of having a better understanding and of getting closer together on the whole matter,” he writes.

The Asiatics includes two drawings of the ideal male and two of the ideal female by Franklane Sewell. Sewell, a prominent poultry artist, some of whose drawings are still used in the American Poultry Association’s Standard of Perfection, first drew them as composites from live models. Those drawings set off so much controversy among poultry judges that he re-drew them, making changes according to their suggestions. The differences are obvious only to the most discerning eye of the breeder.

Brahmas are recognized in Light and Dark color varieties. The Light color pattern, shown here, is the same as the color pattern known as Columbian in other breeds. The Dark color pattern is the same as Silver Penciled in other breeds. The Buff is a later development, created after the buff color became so popular in the late 19th century. They were admitted to the Standard in 1924, long after the other varieties, which were included in the first Standard in 1874.
They have a calm disposition and a stately carriage. They are broody and will raise their own chicks. They don’t mind being confined. The University of Oklahoma blames their slow growth for their loss of popularity among commercial operations, They should be allowed nine months to a year to achieve their full growth and mature plumage before culling.

Although their large size, 12 lbs. for the mature rooster and 9 ½ lbs. for the mature hen, has made them attractive to flock owners as meat birds, they are respectable layers of brown eggs. They were originally a dual purpose breed. Such grand birds are kept for exhibition as well.

Brahma bantams are large enough to be useful production birds. At 38 ounces for mature males and 34 ounces for mature females, they are substantial and make a nice meat bird. A friend of mine swears by her bantam eggs. One large egg is not enough for her breakfast and two are too much, but she finds two bantam eggs are just right.

They are also popular show birds. The bantam varieties were developed alongside the large fowl in the late 19th century. Brahmas are not as rare as some breeds have become, but could in no sense be described as common. They could have a distinguished place in your poultry yard.

Friday, January 16, 2009

Urban Chickens

All Things Considered on National Public Radio carried a story on Urban Chickens last week, City Folk Flock to Raise Small Livestock at Home,

Rachel Lewandowski of Caledonia, Wisconsin contacted me about the effort in her town to modify local ordinances to allow residents to keep chickens in their backyards. She and the other advocates have set up a Web site at

Keeping chickens in urban and suburban areas is no surprise to readers of this blog. These bantam Wyandottes were set out on the lawn to sell and exchange with members of Central Coast Feather Fanciers, our local poultry club here in California.
Traditional breeds are the best choice for backyard flocks. That's how they have developed, for their usefulness and beauty, and they continue to serve admirably in both those capacities.

Thursday, January 15, 2009

4-H Video Contest

At the recent National Council for Science and the Environment’s 9th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment, the focus was on "Biodiversity in a Rapidly Changing World." Part of that conference involved a youth video contest, "Voices and Visions from the Next Generation of Conservationists." Jordan L Reitz, a 4-H entry from Pennsylvania was the 12-14 winner with the video entitled “Chicks and Tricks.” For more information go to

Jason's got a grip on the benefits of keeping a small flock of chickens, as well as a sweet chicken who clearly enjoys her place in his arms. Good job, Jason.

Wednesday, January 14, 2009

Comment now on proposed NAIS rules

Mary Zanoni of Farm for Life sent this update on NAIS rules:

On Tuesday, January 13, 2009, the USDA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that would make two elements of NAIS -- NAIS Premises ID and NAIS individual animal ID -- effectively mandatory in several USDA animal disease programs. This rule, if it goes into effect, would be an enormous step toward creating a fully mandatory NAIS for all U.S. livestock.

The proposed rule directly affects cattle, bison, sheep, goats, and swine. However, it will also bring a full NAIS closer for all species. Therefore, all owners of horses, poultry, and other species should also submit comments and urge their livestock/farming organizations to submit comments. Within a few days, Mary Zanoni of Farm for Life will send out a sample letter for people to consider as a basis for comments. The comment period is scheduled to close on March 16, 2009.

Commenting on this proposed rule is extremely important. Not only all animal owners, but also consumers of local/organic/grassfed foods, and everyone concerned with preserving a place for family farms in a world increasingly dominated by Industrial Agriculture, is urged to comment. Submit comments through the Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to to submit or view comments and to view supporting and related materials available
electronically; or by regular Postal Mail/Commercial Delivery. Please send two copies of your comment to Docket No. APHIS–2007–0096, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A–03.8, 4700, River Road Unit 118, Riverdale, MD
20737–1238. Please state that your comment refers to Docket No. APHIS–2007–0096.

In regard to advancing NAIS, the four most important aspects of the USDA/APHIS Jan. 13, 2009 rule are:

1. As of the effective date of the final rule, the NAIS Premises ID Number (PIN) would be the only form of PIN allowed for certain official uses. (Note on timing -- the comment period is open until March 16, 2009. Then USDA reviews the comments and at some point can issue a final rule. That date of issuance would be the effective date for the mandatory assignments of the NAIS Premises IDs. However, a large number of unfavorable comments might result in the postponement, or even retraction or cancellation, of the rule.)

2. Although the system announced in this proposed rule supposedly permits the continued use of the National Uniform Eartagging System (traditionally, metal tags) and a "premises-based numbering system," in fact, these systems would be used in the same way as NAIS Animal Identification Numbers. The older forms of eartags and individual IDs would all be connected into the NAIS Premises ID database through the Animal Identification Number Management System ("AINMS," the USDA system that keeps track of what individual animal identification number is assigned to what farm or ranch). In other words, under the system of this proposed rule, anytime a farmer/rancher has metal tags applied to livestock (such as for TB or brucellosis testing), the farm/ranch will be placed into the NAIS Premises ID system and the numbers on the tags will be tied to the farm/ranch through the USDA's AINMS system.

3. Some requirements are being added for official eartags and these new requirements might make it very difficult or even impossible to obtain metal tags instead of the NAIS tags. The additional requirements include a "U.S. shield" printed on each tag, and tags mustbe "tamper-resistant and have a high retention rate in the animal." The APHIS Administrator must approve all tags. The NAIS tags now available already meet these standards. It is not clear that metal tags have ever been judged by these standards, so it is possible that the APHIS Administrator could fail to approve metal and other non-NAIS tags. Also, tag manufacturers will have a clear self-interest in abandoning production of cheap metal tags in favor of expensive NAIS RFID tags, so non-NAIS forms of tags may quickly become extinct.

4. The addition of a definition of the AINMS to the animal-disease program rules in the Code of Federal Regulations is huge. Previously the AINMS has only been defined in the non-rule NAIS informational documents (Draft Strategic Plan, User Guide, Business Plan, etc.) so it did not have any defined legal status. Now this proposed rule adds a definition of the AINMS and also provides that eventually the AINMS will be used to tie all types of "official" tags -- not just the NAIS 15-digit tags -- to a NAIS registered premises. The proposed rule accomplishes essentially a mandatory system for the first two elements of NAIS -- NAIS premises ID and NAIS individual animal ID. The only difference from the original NAIS plan is that now the metal tags and other traditional forms of individual ID have become additional forms of numbering/tagging that are used as part of NAIS.

Note that even if your state has passed a law to keep NAIS "voluntary," that will not necessarily save you from this rule. The Federal Register notice specifically states: "All State and local laws and regulations that are in conflict with this rule will be preempted." (p. 1638.) However, if you are working to pass a state law limiting NAIS in the present legislative session, keep working -- such a law could still be very important. It shows the opposition of animal owners and consumers to NAIS, which may help get the rule postponed or rescinded. In addition, the question of whether this rule would pre-empt contrary state laws in all circumstances may someday be open to legal challenge. But for now, your best defense against NAIS is to make sure you comment on the proposed rule. Watch for Mary's sample letter to be posted in the next few days.

Mary Zanoni
P.O. Box 501
Canton, New York 13617

Tuesday, January 13, 2009

California State Food & Agriculture Committee

I was encouraged to see this change coming from California state government:

Senate sets new table for Food and Agriculture
California consumers invited to pull up a chair

SACRAMENTO – Senate President Pro Tem Darrell Steinberg (D-Sacramento) and Senate Majority Leader Dean Florez (D-Shafter) will usher in a new era in California agriculture policy Tuesday, announcing a newly revamped Senate Committee on Food and Agriculture that looks more broadly at critical issues of sustainability and safety, as well as animal welfare reforms called for under voter-approved Proposition 2 and the security of our state’s food supply.
A website will be launched in conjunction with the announcement to provide information on the change and encourage public input in policy discussions at

The pending reorganization will move forward a committee that was traditionally too narrowly focused on production, with a new vision that recognizes the need to protect finite resources while feeding an ever-growing population, the role that agriculture plays in supporting healthy lives and healthy communities, and the importance of transparency and consumer education in advancing best practices among producers.

“More Californians are paying close attention to where their food comes from and how healthy it is,” Steinberg said. “Senator Florez has shown great leadership as an advocate for improved food safety and legislative oversight in this area. He will play a pivotal role in keeping our communities informed and healthy.”

“There is a large and growing movement within the agriculture industry to focus on food products that are produced locally and responsibly that didn’t get the attention it deserved under the old committee format,” Florez said. “As we work to reign in sprawl in California and develop sustainable communities, agriculture is a critical component that needs to be addressed. Every community needs access to good nutrition.”

The Senate F&A Committee, historically comprised of rural members, will reach out to include urban legislators whose residents are often in even greater need of improved access to the fresh fruits and vegetables that are critical to a balanced diet. These urban districts also represent a large number of children who qualify for the school nutrition programs which fall under F&A’s jurisdiction.

As chairman of F&A, Florez already has plans to conduct a number of oversight hearings this year, including an inquiry into how the use of synthetic fertilizers was allowed in produce certified as organic, a look at the public health impacts of the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animals used for food, models of sustainable farming practices for operations large and small, how to improve farm animal welfare in California in light of the passage of Proposition 2, and a review of the investigations into E. coli contamination in the state’s leafy greens. Florez was a strong proponent of increased inspections and testing of leafy greens as chair of the Senate Select Committee on Food Safety.

“Eating is an act of faith, and I believe it is the role of government to ensure that this act of faith is well placed,” said Florez.

WHO: Senate Pro Tem Darrell Steinberg, D-Sacramento; Senate Majority Leader Dean Florez, D-Shafter; Senator Loni Hancock, D-Oakland; Humane Society of the United States; Center for Race, Poverty and the Environment; Food Empowerment Project; Center for Food Safety; Community Alliance with Family Farms; Food and Water Watch; Whole Foods Market
WHAT: Announcement of Senate Committee on Food and Agriculture
WHEN: Tuesday, January 13, 2009; 11:30 a.m.
WHERE: State Capitol, Room 3191; Sacramento, CA

This is all to the good, but I was disappointed when I went to the Web site and found a poll to determine which of the four subjects, Food Safety; Sustainable Farming; Food Security; and Animal Welfare, gets the most votes. This kind of dichotomy sets up a choice that doesn't reflect reality. Personally, I can't choose one. Of course I care about Animal Welfare and I'd like to see chickens treated much better than they are. That doesn't mean I don't care about Food Safety or one of the others. What use will they make of whatever figures they collect?

The best news is that the subject of agriculture is getting a lot more attention from a wider spectrum of the public. Getting better exposure to these issues will improve public decision making.

Friday, January 9, 2009


The Reliable Poultry Journal, published during the early years of the 20th century, through the 1920s. Among the antique books recently donated to SPPA is their publication on The Asiatics: Brahmas, Cochins and Langshans. “Their origin is veiled in mystery, but from data gathered by numerous early fanciers, the period of their first appearance is fixed,” it says.

A.F. Hunter, associate editor of Reliable Poultry Journal, recounts the history of the importation of various fowls from China, including those given to Queen Victoria in 1843. He refers to Wright’s “New Book of Poultry,” in which Wright refutes the idea that those birds are the antecedents of modern Cochins, although they were from the Cochin area of China. Those birds, as shown in the 1843 illustration, are tall and rangy, showing a Malay influence, he felt. Modern Cochins developed from Shanghai birds imported to England in 1847, according to Wright. Although poultry writers continued to use the name Shanghai, “The public had got to know the new, big fowls as Cochins, and would use no other word, and so the name stuck, in the teeth of the facts, and holds the field to this day.”

Hunter remembers Yellow Shanghais, Gray Chittigongs and Malays from 60 years previous, which would have made it around 1860, hat were “so tall that, while standing on the floor beside it, they could eat corn off the top of a barrel that was standing on end.” Birds descended from those are reported to have reached 17 or 18 pounds in weight.

With their large size, Asiatic breeds are all meat breeds. Langshans, at 9 ½ lbs smaller than the 12-lb. Brahma roosters and 11-lb. Cochins, are considered a dual purpose breed with good egg production.

This illustration of Buff Cochins is copyright 1898.

Wednesday, January 7, 2009

Auburn Javas

This past week, a breeder who has some of theAuburn Javas from the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry contacted me. He's looking for information on this very rare variety of a rare breed. The illustration above comes from The Poultry Book of 1912, by Harrison Weir. It is identified as being a drawing of 25 years before, putting it at 1887.

He started with three hens and a rooster in February 2008. In the birds he has bred thus far, he has observed some variation in the amount of red on the males and gold on the females. He describes the males as "striking." They are similar to Light Brown Leghorn cocks. This breeder is most delighted by the auburn with black mottling color on breast and body. The fluff is also auburn with black.

"Even though there is some variation in the amount of auburn on the roosters, they are very consistent in other ways," he writes. "On both males and females, the beaks are horn that shades to yellow at the tip, the eyes are reddish bay, the shanks and toes are willow and the bottoms of the feet are yellow. The hens are basically black with gold/yellow on their necks and breasts and sometimes even throughout most of the body."

The Java came to the U.S. at least by 1835 from the East Indies (hence the name) and were admitted to the Standard of Perfection in 1883. As a high-class market fowl, its breeding was desirable and contributed to development of the Black Jersey Giant and the Barred Plymouth Rock. Indirectly, their influences reached many other breeds, including Orpingtons and Australorps. Javas are probably the source of yellow legs and skin in Dominiques.

They had nearly disappeared by the end of the 20th Century, but in recent years, attention from specialty breeders and historical societies has given the breed a second chance. Garfield Farm Museum in La Fox, Illinois in the 1990s has played a significant role in the recovery of the Java breed as part of its commitment to historic stewardship.

Garfield Farm is an 1840s living history farm and inn museum. In the course of its breeding program of Black and Mottled Javas, such as the one below, a photo from Weir's Poultry Book, a pure white strain appeared in 1999. While this is no longer recognized by the standard, it is a legitimate variety and may find official recognition some day. Breeders are nurturing it with an eye to campaigning to have it included in the Standard of Perfection again.

The farm museum supplies Java eggs to hatch at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry’s “Genetics: Decoding Life” exhibit. That connection has supplied thousands of chicks to breeders around the country.

The museum breeds over 8,000 Java chicks each year. Out of those, two brown ones showed up in 2004, the remnants of the Auburn variety that disappeared in 1870. The Auburns are significant for their contribution to the Rhode Island Red.

Senior Exhibit Specialist Tim Christakos has shared the rare birds with local breeders who are nurturing the Auburns toward sustainable populations.

“We know they are not going to go extinct now,” he says.

Javas are a heavy breed, with cocks at an ideal weight of 9.5 lbs. and hens at 7.5 lbs. Like many historic breeds, Javas grow more slowly than industrial hybrid cross birds that feed our retail appetite for chicken.

I'll continue to pore through these books and see what is there to document Auburn Javas.